Sustainable development workshop

ORANGE GROUP
Co-Chair: John Keating and Jonathan Derham Rapporteur: Charles Parker

Introduction

The group comprised 23 representatives from Government and Industry. Initial discussions identified a wide range of social, economic and environmental benefits and challenges arising out of the production and use of non-ferrous metals. The group also identified benefits and challenges relating to the properties of non-ferrous metals and explored the principles of good governance.

Based on these discussions the group identified five broad themes arising out of the consideration of benefits and challenges for the production and use of non-ferrous metals:

Image

Responsible Management

Research and Development

Emissions Management

Contribution to Governance

Image

The group recognised that industry must take ownership of the image challenges and that image was founded on trust and credibility. The group considered that industry should be more pro-active rather than reactive and as such it needed to organise itself at a sectoral, corporate and product/material level to achieve this objective. Industry recognised the long-term commitment that would be required to address the image challenge.

Recommendation - Develop and implement a long-term strategy to address the image issues.

Action By: Industry

Responsible Management

The group identified a range of social, economic, environmental and ethical challenges that need to be addressed in relation to metals' contribution to sustainable development. It was recognised that these challenges needed to be addressed at all levels of the metals' life cycle.

Recommendation - Industry should promote and demonstrate responsible management of their processes and products throughout their life cycle.

Action By: Industry

Research and Development

The group agreed there was insufficient credible data or research to assist the decision making process in relation to regulation of the sector. Furthermore it was recognised that there was a low level of communication of existing data and research.

Recommendation - Develop and make readily available peer reviewed information relevant to sustainable development decision making, and keep it current.

Action By: Industry

The group recognised that Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) criteria developed for screening organic chemicals were not necessarily appropriate for metals and their compounds. The group agreed that there is insufficient data to develop a framework and tools for proper screening of metals and their compounds.

Recommendation - Develop an appropriate decision making framework and the necessary tools for screening and classifying metals and their compounds.

Action By: Industry

Emissions Management

The group identified a range of challenges associated with emissions generated throughout the life cycle of a metal. The group considered that environmental management systems are an effective tool in the identification, prevention, control and reduction of emissions.

Recommendation - Companies should develop and implement environmental management systems and communicate them to the public

Action By: Industry

Contribution to Governance

The group recognised that secondary raw materials should be treated in the same manner as primary raw materials. To enhance the collection, movement and recovery of secondary raw materials the group agreed that existing trade and other constraints should be addressed.

Recommendation - Barriers to collection, movement and recovery/recycling of non-ferrous metals be identified, assessed and addressed.

Action By: Industry and Government

The group acknowledged the need for a range of stakeholders in the decision making process regarding societies use of non-ferrous metals. The group agreed to the need for a Government led multi-stakeholder forum to discuss the role of metals to sustainable development

Recommendation - Develop an inter-governmental forum that allows for the participation of all stake holders to assess and address the contribution of metals to sustainable development.

Action By: Governments


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP

ORANGE BREAK OUT GROUP - BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

NON-FERROUS METALS BENEFITS (PROPERTIES)

Corrosion protection
Unique physical characteristics
Heat and electricity resistance and low conductivity
Corrosion protection
Machinability/ductile
Flexibility
Recyclable
Strength
Shielding (radiation, electro mag)
Galvanic
Catalytic
Impermeable
Conductivity
Abrasion Resistance
Alloys Potential
Hygienic / cleanability
Durability
Density
Fission/nuclear/magnetic characteristics
Ductility
Wear resistance

NON-FERROUS METALS CHALLENGES (PROPERTIES)

Availability of information

R&D

Bio-accumulation

Bio-availability

Misconception: science and affects

Radioactivity

Corrosion

Leaching

Toxicity

Cost



ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Foreign currency

Environmental industries and services

Development of service industries

Contribution to GDP

Energy saving through recycling for metals

Taxes

Private Investment in developing countries

Underpinning other industries

Wide variety of applications (tools, plant, vehicles)

Innovation

Corporate consolidation



ECONOMIC CHALLENGES

Transparency/markets

Resource depletion

Speculation

Protectionism

Profitability

Investment: attracting

E-commerce

Access to secondary raw materials (Basel Convention)

Taxes

Competition/substitution

Transport & Storage

Energy and efficiency

Economic instruments

Increasing cost of compliance

Market development

Producer responsibility: extended

Improvement of product: environmental and cost efficiency

Innovation: Patents

Corporate consolidation



ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES

Liability

Contamination of the food chain/wild life

Metal Emissions from non-metal industry

Orphaned and Abandoned Mines

Appropriate Standards

Appropriate regulation

"Harmonisation"

Water, air emissions

Soil Contamination

Greenhouse gasses

Impact mitigation

Wastes: hazardous and non-hazardous

Recyclable: Design for recycling (composite materials)

Dispersal

Energy: intensive use

Land disturbance: ecological

Contamination in products through recycling

Mine closure

Protected Areas (SSSI etc)

Prevention and rehabilitation

Bad technology

Tailings

Acid Rain

Acid Mine drainage

Ozone depletion

Recycling of composites

Design for recycling

Toxicity (control of)

Frontier loss



ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

Metals in waste water treatment

Mine "Adoption"

Reduced intensity of use due to extended use

Resource conservation: recycling/re-use

Energy conservation

Catalytic conversion

Life essential

Safety and Environmental health benefits (odourless/inflammable)

Transfer and implementation of knowledge and management systems



SOCIAL BENEFITS

Underwrites civilisation

Communication

Transportation

Housing

Food Production

Energy generation, transmission, storage and transportation

Wealth creation

Capital formation Infrastructure Development Social Advancement (education, sanitation, drinking water, community infrastructure development: social/physical Human capital formation Health: Medical devices Employment: direct/indirect Diversification of economic activity



SOCIAL CHALLENGES

Addressing social needs

Image problem: population, institutions (corporate, sectoral, product)

Cultural impact (indigenous populations)

Engender Trust

Inter-generational responsibility

Safety

Dependent communities

Ethics

Small scale mining

Consumer Awareness and Participation in recycling in the metals life cycle

Public participation: workers, communities



GOVERNANCE -GENERAL "PRINCIPLES" DISCUSSED

Integrity of process Role/use of science Role of stakeholders "Role" of future generations "Fairness" Facilitation of efficiency Environment and Economic Barriers to trade Economic Instruments/taxation.

GOVERNANCE

Free and fair trade Legitimacy Partnerships Effective communication Leadership Integrity Accountability Co-operation Clarity of purpose and objective in decision making Role of future and Present generations Transparent Stakeholder involvement Consistent rules: clarity; accountability, integrity of process Integration of social, environment and economic in decision making Enhancement of decision making through the development of better tools e.g. science (reduce uncertainty with respect to risk. Realistic standards (site specific) Credible actions, which build, trust Consultation Wide range of regulatory and non-regulatory incentives Consideration of social, economic and environmental costs & benefits and their distribution. Appropriate regulation



SUMMARY OF MAIN THEMES

(I) Image: Sectoral

Corporate

Product material



(II) Responsible Management throughout life cycle

Social charter

Ethical charter

Environmental charter

Economic charter



(III) R&D



(IV) Emissions Management (air, effluent, waste)



(V) Contribution to governance